Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton (January 4, 1643 – March 31, 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, and is considered to be one of the most influential people in human history. His "Mathematical Principles Of Natural Philosophy" is probably the most important scientific book ever written. It lays the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation; thus advancing the Scientific Revolution. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of color based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colors that form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In mathematics, Newton shares the credit for the development of differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.